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Time-On-Task and Study Effort Toward College Degree Completion

Literature Review, January 1999

 

American Psychological Association (PsycInfo Database) 

-Record 4 of 33 in PsycINFO 1993-1995

AN: 1994-98528-007SEE PREVIOUS CHAPTER SEE NEXT CHAPTER
DT: Chapter
TI: Self-worth and college achievement: Motivational and personality correlates.
AU: Covington,-Martin-V.; Roberts,-Brent-W.
AF: U California, Berkeley, CA, USA
BK: Pintrich, Paul R. (Ed); Brown, Donald R. (Ed); et-al. (1994). Student motivation, cognition, and learning: Essays in honor of Wilbert J. McKeachie. (pp. 157-187). Hillsdale, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. xv, 404 pp.SEE BOOK
IB: 0805813764 (hardcover)
PY: 1994
LA: English
AB: (from the chapter) review the research conducted under the auspices of the Berkeley Teaching/Learning Project . . . dealing with the identification of individual difference factors important to college achievement / study the intersect between 2 factors: the tendency of students to approach success and to avoid failure / present data from our most recent efforts to extend a self-worth analysis by considering the personality attributes of those student types we initially identified by motive alone / [describe] those characteristic styles of coping, the dynamics of well-being and levels of personal adjustment associated with the various types / explore briefly the educational implications of our student typology and how best to accommodate the variety of needs and reasons for learning represented in the college classroom ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
KP: self worth and other personality attributes, individual differences in success vs failure motivations and achievement, college students, educational implications
MJ: *Academic-Achievement-Motivation; *College-Academic-Achievement; *Personality-Traits
MN: College-Students; Individual-Differences; Self-Concept
CC: 3550-Academic-Learning-and-Achievement; 3550; 35
AG: Adulthood
PO: Human
SF: References
AT: Psychology:-Professional-and-Research
UD: 199701

 
 

-Record 7 of 33 in PsycINFO 1989-1992
AN: 1992-98187-000
DT: Authored-Book; Book
TI: Making the grade: A self-worth perspective on motivation and school reform.
AU: Covington,-Martin-V..
AF: U California, Berkeley, CA, USA
PB: New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press. (1992). viii, 351 pp.
IB: 0521342619 (hardcover); 052134803X (paperback)
PY: 1992
LA: English
AB: (from the book) Achievement behavior in schools can be understood best in terms of students' attempts to maintain a positive self-image. For many students, expending effort is scary because a combination of effort and failure implies low ability. Students have a variety of techniques for avoiding failure, ranging from cheating to setting goals that are so easily achieved that no risk is involved. Although teachers usually reward achievement and punish lack of effort, for many students risking the sense of defeat that comes from trying hard and not succeeding is too daunting. In "Making the grade," MartinCovington extracts powerful educational implications from self-worth theory and other contemporary views that will be useful for educators, parents, and all people concerned with the educational dilemmas we face. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
KP: discusses academic achievement motivation and behavior in students; draws educatonal implications from self-worth theory
MJ: *Academic-Achievement-Motivation; *Self-Esteem
MN: School-Learning; Students-
CC: 3550-Academic-Learning-and-Achievement; 3550; 35
PO: Human
SF: References
AT: Psychology:-Professional-and-

-Record 9 of 33 in PsycINFO 1989-1992
AN: 1992-33085-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Putting self back in the process: A discussant's perspective.
AU: Covington,-Martin-V..
AF: U California, Berkeley, USA
SO: Journal-of-Experimental-Education. 1991 Fal; Vol 60(1): 82-88.
JN: Journal-of-Experimental-Education;
SI: Special Issue: Unraveling motivation
IS: 0022-0973
PY: 1991
LA: English
AB: Remarks on the contributions to this special journal issue devoted to the theme of motivation. The issue's basic message is that the notion of the "self as agency" is an insufficient description of human behavior and that a more complete interpretation requires an important modification: "the self as valued agency." Remarks focus on the different reasons for learning, motives as goals, and personal limitations. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
KP: role of self in motivational processes of learning, students
MJ: *Learning-; *Motivation-; *Self-Concept; *Self-Perception
CC: 3550-Academic-Learning-and-Achievement; 3550; 35
PO: Human
UD: 199209

-Record 10 of 33 in PsycINFO 1989-1992
AN: 1991-98170-007SEE PREVIOUS CHAPTER SEE NEXT CHAPTER
DT: Chapter
TI: Need achievement revisited: Verification of Atkinson's original 2 X 2 model.
AU: Covington,-Martin-V.; Omelich,-Carol-L.
AF: U California, Berkeley, CA, USA
BK: Spielberger, Charles Donald (Ed); Sarason, Irwin G. (Ed); et-al. (1991). Stress and emotion: Anxiety, anger, and curiosity, Vol. 14. The series in clinical psychology and The series in stress and emotion: Anxiety, anger, and curiosity. (pp. 85-105). New York, NY, USA: Hemisphere Publishing Corp. xv, 340 pp.SEE BOOK
IB: 1560321873 (hardcover)
PY: 1991
LA: English
AB: (from the chapter) the purpose of this study was to test Atkinson's original need achievement model for classifying individuals by means of a two-dimensional approach/avoidance matrix / if achievement initiation is bipolar, then behaviors known to characterize hope-of-success and fear-of-failure tendencies should differentiate individuals into only two unique groups / if, however, achievement motivation is quadrapolar, as expected, then behavioral differences should emerge among four motive groups /// self-perceptions of ability / anxiety arousal / quality and amount of study / quality and amount of effort ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
MJ: *Achievement-Motivation; *Fear-of-Success
MN: Anxiety-; Self-Perception; Avoidance-; Failure-
CC: 2360-Motivation-and-Emotion; 2360; 23
PO: Human
SF: References
AT: Psychology:-Professional-and-Research
UD: 199701

-Record 1 of 1 in PsycINFO 1977-1983
AN: 1981-04118-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Is effort enough, or does diligence count too? Student and teacher reactions to effort stability in failure.
AU: Covington,-Martin-V.; Spratt,-Michael-F.; Omelich,-Carol-L.
AF: U California, Berkeley
SO: Journal-of-Educational-Psychology. 1980 Dec; Vol 72(6): 717-729.
JN: Journal-of-Educational-Psychology;
IS: 0022-0663
PY: 1980
LA: English
AB: Research indicates that although teachers encourage achievement through effort, students often minimize study to avoid the implication that they lack ability if they fail. Effort stability was examined in this context. Are steady, diligent workers evaluated differently from those who are erratic in their study patterns? Does a reputation for variable study patterns reduce shame by deflecting the causes of failure from low ability? 187 undergraduates (who had been rated on the Michigan State Self-Concept of Ability Scale) rated affective reactions to a series of hypothetical test failures along 2 dimensions: amount of overall effort and stability of effort. An additional 187 undergraduates in the role of teachers administered punishment to hypothetical students under the same conditions. Results indicate that although effort stability contributed little to variations in student affect, it did influence teacher judgments, suggesting that determination of feedback is a more complex process than implied by a simple distinction between teachers as reinforcers of modifiable (unstable) behavior and moralistic conveyors of a work ethic. (45 ref) ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
KP: amount and stability of effort and subsequent test failures, student affect and attributions and teacher judgments and punishment, college students
MJ: *Attribution-; *College-Academic-Achievement; *College-Students; *Student-Attitudes; *Energy-Expenditure
MN: Academic-Failure; Teacher-Attitudes; Teacher-Student-Interaction
CC: 3550-Academic-Learning-and-Achievement; 3550; 35
AG: Adulthood
PO: Human
SF: References
UD: 198102

-Record 1 of 1 in PsycINFO 1977-1983
AN: 1979-29720-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: Effort: The double-edged sword in school achievement.
AU: Covington,-Martin-V.; Omelich,-Carol-L.
AF: U California, Berkeley
SO: Journal-of-Educational-Psychology. 1979 Apr; Vol 71(2): 169-182.
JN: Journal-of-Educational-Psychology;
IS: 0022-0663
PY: 1979
LA: English
AB: 360 undergraduates rated their affective reactions to hypothetical test failures under conditions of high or low effort and in the presence or absence of self-serving excuses. Then, in the role of teachers, they administered punishment to hypothetical students under the same failure conditions. Inability attributions and negative affect were greatest when failure followed much effort. Conversely, failure reflected less on ability, and shame was correspondingly reduced when students studied little--the same failure condition that Ss, in the role of teachers, punished most severely. (64 ref) ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
KP: high vs low effort and presence vs absence of self serving excuses, affective reactions to hypothetical test failures and administration of punishment in role of teacher, college students
MJ: *Ability-Level; *Academic-Failure; *College-Students; *Energy-Expenditure; *Self-Concept
MN: Emotional-Responses; Punishment-; Self-Evaluation; Role-Playing
CC: 3560-Classroom-Dynamics-and-Student-Adjustment-and-Attitudes; 3560; 35
AG: Adulthood
PO: Human
SF: References
UD: 197910

-Record 1 of 144 in PsycINFO 1996-1998/12
AN: 1997-04978-004
DT: Journal-Article
TI: The retention of freshmen students: An examination of the assumptions, beliefs, and perceptions held by college administrators and faculty.
AU: Braunstein,-Andrew; McGrath,-Michael
AF: Iona Coll, New Rochelle, NY, USA
SO: College-Student-Journal. 1997 Jun; Vol 31(2): 188-200.
JN: College-Student-Journal;
IS: 0146-3934
PY: 1997
LA: English
AB: Examined the assumptions, beliefs, and perceptions regarding freshmen retention held by college administrators and faculty. A process of data collection and analysis known as triangulation was utilized. Data were collected by interviewing 8 administrators and faculty (mean age 46.2 yrs), by observing them in various settings on campus, and by reviewing college documents. Results of the qualitative data indicate that administrator and faculty perceptions of why freshmen leave are consistent. However, the data also indicate that the participants hold different views on the ways in which they work with freshmen and the ways in which retention issues should be addressed by the college. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
KP: assumptions and beliefs and perceptions of freshmen retention, college administrators and faculty (mean age 46.2 yrs)
MJ: *Adult-Attitudes; *College-Students; *Educational-Personnel; *School-Administrators; *School-Retention
MN: Adulthood-
CC: 3510-Educational-Administration-and-Personnel; 3510; 35
AG: Adulthood; Thirties; Middle-Age
PO: Human; Male; Female
LO: USA
PT: Empirical-Study
SF: References
UD: 199803

-Record 3 of 144 in PsycINFO 1996-1998/12
AN: 1996-05979-003
DT: Journal-Article
TI: The scheduling of knowledge of results.
AU: Kohl,-Robert-M.; Guadagnoli,-Mark-A.
AF: Wayne State U, Div of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Detroit, MI, USA
SO: Journal-of-Motor-Behavior. 1996 Sep; Vol 28(3): 233-240.
JN: Journal-of-Motor-Behavior;
IS: 0022-2895
PY: 1996
LA: English
AB: Examined the acquisition effects of knowledge of results (KR) scheduling on no-KR retention. In Exp 1, with 36 undergraduates, the group that alternated between 12 KR and 12 no-KR responses produced better retention than both the group that alternated between 6 KR and 6 no-KR responses and an all-KR group. The partial KR group that performed the best on retention also received the least number of reversals from KR to no-KR responses and from no-KR to KR responses, however. In Exp 2, with 70 undergraduates, when acquisition KR reversals were held constant for partial KR groups, groups that received either random KR scheduling or all KR produced similar and better retention than groups who received blocked KR scheduling. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
KP: type of knowledge of results scheduling, no knowledge of results retention, college students
MJ: *Knowledge-of-Results; *Reinforcement-Schedules; *Retention-
MN: Adulthood-
CC: 2343-Learning-and-Memory; 2343; 23
AG: Adulthood
PO: Human
PT: Empirical-Study
SF: References
UD: 199701-

-Record 4 of 144 in PsycINFO 1993-1995
AN: 1996-25306-001
DT: Journal-Article
TI: The positive impact of creative activity: Effects of creative task engagement and motivational focus on college students' learning.
AU: Conti,-Regina; Amabile,-Teresa-M.; Pollak,-Sara
AF: Colgate U, Dept of Psychology, Hamilton, NY, USA
SO: Personality-and-Social-Psychology-Bulletin. 1995 Oct; Vol 21(10): 1107-1116.
JN: Personality-and-Social-Psychology-Bulletin;
IS: 0146-1672
PY: 1995
LA: English
AB: Assessed the effect of creative task engagement and motivation condition on immediate recall, creativity, subsequent interest, and long-term retention with 95 undergraduates. Before reading a short instructional passage, Ss completed either a creative or a noncreative pretask and heard 1 of 3 sets of directions, emphasizing a different motive: task focused (emphasizing intrinsic involvement), test focused (emphasizing external evaluation), or task/test focused. After reading the passage, Ss answered questions assessing immediate retention, wrote a creative essay, and responded to a questionnaire assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. A phone quiz assessed long-term retention 5 days later. Creative task engagement was found to be an effective means of enhancing creativity (in the absence of evaluation expectation), intrinsic motivation, and long-term retention. Immediate recall was highest in test-focused Ss. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)
KP: creative task engagement and motivational focus, creativity and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and immediate recall and long term retention, college students, 5 day followup
MJ: *Attention-; *Creativity-; *Motivation-; *Recall-Learning; *Long-Term-Memory
MN: Adulthood-; Extrinsic-Motivation; Followup-Studies; Intrinsic-Motivation
CC: 2343-Learning-and-Memory; 2343; 23
AG: Adulthood
PO: Human
PT: Empirical-Study; Followup-Study
UD: 199609

-Record 8 of 144 in PsycINFO 1993-1995
AN: 1997-73258-001
DT: Dissertation-Abstract
TI: The impact of texas academic skills program test failure on college retention and graduation of myers-briggs type indicator sensing-perceiving students.
AU: Braley,-Richard-Todd
AF: East Texas State U, TX, USA
SO: Dissertation-Abstracts-International-Section-A:-Humanities-and-Social-Sciences. 1994; Vol 55(6-A): 1474.
JN: Dissertation-Abstracts-International-Section-A:-Humanities-and-Social-Sciences;
IS: 0419-4209
PY: 1994
LA: English
KP: The impact of texas academic skills program test failure on college retention and graduation of myers-briggs type indicator sensing-perceiving students.
MJ: *Academic-Failure; *Personality-Traits; *School-Graduation; *Remedial-Education; *School-Retention
MN: Adulthood-; College-Students; Myers-Briggs-Type-Indicator
CC: 3500-Educational-Psychology; 3500; 35
AG: Adulthood
PO: Human
PT: Empirical-Study
UD: 199709-

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Record 9 of 144 in PsycINFO 1993-1995

AN: 1996-74768-001
DT: Dissertation-Abstract
TI: The administrative implications of mandatory and voluntary student placement in developmental education programs for student retention.
AU: Lepley,-Charmaine-Gunnoe
AF: West Virginia U, WV, USA
SO: Dissertation-Abstracts-International-Section-A:-Humanities-and-Social-Sciences. 1994; Vol 54(11-A): 3948.
JN: Dissertation-Abstracts-International-Section-A:-Humanities-and-Social-Sciences;
IS: 0419-4209
PY: 1994
LA: English
KP: mandatory vs voluntary placement, retention, college students in developmental reading and English and mathematics programs
MJ: *Educational-Placement; *Remedial-Education; *School-Retention
MN: Adulthood-; Remedial-Reading; Mathematics-Education; College-Students
CC: 3530-Curriculum-and-Programs-and-Teaching-Methods; 3530; 35
AG: Adulthood
PO: Human
PT: Empirical-Study
UD: 199611