Jaekyung Lee


Counseling, School, and Educational Psychology

Educational Leadership and Policy

 434 Baldy Hall

education policy analysis
achievement gaps among racial and social groups
educational assessment and testing
international and comparative education
quantitative research methods; hierarchical linear modeling (HLM)
educational assessment
educational policy analysis
international and comparative education

Jump to Publications

Educational Background

  • PhD, Education, University of Chicago
  • MA, BA, Education, Yonsei University

Professional and Research Interests

  • Educational Policy Analysis
  • Educational Equity and Achievement Gaps
  • Educational Accountability and High-stakes Testing
  • Comparative and International Education
  • Secondary Analysis of Large-scale National Education Databases
  • Quantitative Research Methods

Awards and Honors

  • Western New York Educational Service Council Robert W. Heller Award, 2015
  • American Educational Research Association (AERA) Outstanding Reviewer Award (American Educational Research Journal), 2015
  • Fellow of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2013–Present
  • American Educational Research Association Early Career Award, 2007
  • Fellow of Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (CASBS), Stanford University, 2009–10
  • Fellow of National Education Policy Center (NEPC), University of Colorado at Boulder, 2007–Present
  • UB Regional Institute Fellow, 2007–2008
  • Marquis Who's Who in America; Marquis Who's Who in the World
  • National Academy of Education/Spencer Postdoctoral Fellowship, 1999 - 2001
  • American Educational Finance Association/National Center for Education Statistics New Scholars Award, 1996 - 1997
  • American Educational Research Association Dissertation Grant, 1995 - 1996
  • Korea Foundation for Advanced Studies Doctoral Fellowship, 1992 - 1997

Professional Service

  • Former Associate Editor and Editorial Board Member, American Educational Research Journal (Social and Institutional Analysis Section)
  • Editorial Board Member, Education Policy Analysis Archives (http://epaa.asu.edu)
  • Editorial Board Member and Former Guest Editor, Korea Education Development Institute (KEDI) Journal of Educational Policy (http://eng.kedi.re.kr)
  • Editorial Board Member, Journal of Research in Rural Education (http://www.jrre.psu.edu)

Research Overview

My current fields of scholarly work encompass educational policy analysis, international and comparative education, and quantitative research methods. My research interests focus on the design and evaluation of educational policies and school interventions for improving academic excellence and equity and closing achievement gaps among racial and social groups of students. A major part of my research agenda is to conduct empirical analysis of the effects of education policy such as NCLB high-stakes testing on student achievement. Because my research is drawn predominantly from large-scale national databases, it holds particularly strong potential for school improvement across the U.S. However, the scope of my research goes beyond the U.S. to address increasing global challenges of realizing potential for all students. I have conducted comparative studies of American vs. Asian (South Korea in particular) education issues from international perspectives.

My recent book, The Anatomy of Achievement Gaps, offers a critical analysis of underachievement problems in American education from interdisciplinary, international, and systems perspectives. The book has several aims: to build a new model of achievement gap research and policy; to provide evidence on the state and alterability of achievement gaps; to synthesize separate lines of domestic and international achievement gap research; and to evaluate and inform American P-16 (pre-school through college) education policies. In light of socioeconomic changes and educational paradigm shifts, my work extends the scope of analysis from a K-12 to a P-16 education pipeline and from domestic racial/social groups to international groups, with focus on the case of South Korea. Through multilevel and longitudinal analyses of U.S. national and international datasets, The Anatomy of Achievement Gaps provides new evidence on the status and trends of achievement gaps, causes of these gaps, and the effects of policy interventions. In an effort to evaluate the nation's strengths and weaknesses across the P-16 education pipeline, it draws upon a wide range of educational data sources and indicators. Featuring cross-cultural perspectives beyond the U.S., it reframes achievement gap and educational accountability issues.

Selected Publications


Lee, J. (2016). The Anatomy of Achievement Gaps: Why and How American Education is Losing (but can still Win) the War on Underachievement. New York: Oxford University Press. Available: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/the-anatomy-of-achievement-gaps-9780190217648?cc=us&lang=en&#

Lee, J. (2007). The Testing Gap: Scientific Trials of Test-Driven School Accountability Systems for Excellence and Equity. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Available: http://www.infoagepub.com/products/The-Testing-Gap

Lee, J. (Ed.) (2007). How National Data Help Tackle the Achievement Gap. Buffalo, NY: GSE Publications/SUNY Press. Available: http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/faculty/publications

Journal Articles

Lee, J., Finn, J. & Liu, X. (in press). Time-Indexed Effect Size for Educational Research and Evaluation. Journal of Experimental Education.

Lee, J., & Wu, Y. (2017). Is the Common Core Racing America to the Top? Tracking changes in state standards, school practices, and student achievement. Education Policy Analysis Archives. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.25.2834.

Collins, J. L., Lee, J., Fox, J. D., & Madigan, T. P. (2017).Bringing Together Reading and Writing: An Experimental Study of Writing Intensive Reading Comprehension (WIRC) in Low-Performing Urban Elementary Schools. Reading Research Quarterly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rrq.175

Lee, J., Weis, L., Liu, K., & Kang, C. (2017). Which Type of High School Maximizes Students' College Match? Unequal Pathways to Postsecondary Destinations for Students from Varying High School Settings. The Journal of Higher Education. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2016.1272327

Lee, J. & D. Park (2014). Do American and Korean education systems converge? Tracking school reform policies and outcomes in Korea and the USA.Asia Pacific Education Review, 15(3), 391-399.

Lee, J., Liu, X., Amo, L., & Wang, W. (2014). Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External vs. Internal Standards-based Education Models. Educational Policy, 28(6), 780-811.

Lee, J., Shin, H., & Amo, L. (2013). Evaluating the Impact of NCLB School Interventions in New York State: Does One Size Fit All? Education Policy Analysis Archives [Online], 21(67). Available: http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/1122.

Lee, J. (2012). College for All: Gaps between Desirable and Actual P-12 Math Achievement Trajectories for College Readiness. Educational Researcher, 41(2), 43-55.

Lee, J., & Reeves, T. (2012). Revisiting the Impact of NCLB High-stakes School Accountability, Capacity and Resources: State NAEP 1990-2009 Reading and Math Achievement Gaps and Trends. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(2), 209-231.

Lee, J. (2012). Educational Equity and Adequacy for Disadvantaged Minority Students: School and Teacher Resource Gaps toward National Math Proficiency Standard. Journal of Educational Research, 105(1), 64-75.

Lee, J. (2011). Making Educational Accountability System Work for Equity: Learning from the U.S. Experiences and Studies. Education Comparée, 5, 17-34.

Lee, J. & Fish, R. (2010). International and Interstate Gaps in Value-added Math Achievement: Multilevel Instrumental Variable Analysis of Age Effect and Grade Effect. American Journal of Education,117, 109-137.

Lee, J. (2010). Tripartite Growth Trajectories of Reading and Math Achievement: Tracking National Academic Progress at Primary, Middle and High School Levels. American Educational Research Journal,47(4), 800-832.

Lee, J. (2010). Trick or Treat? New Ecology of Education Accountability System in the United States.Journal of Education Policy, 25(1), 73-93.

Lee, J. (2010). Dual Standards of School Performance and Funding? Empirical Searches of School Funding Adequacy in Kentucky and Maine.Education Economics., 18(2), 131-151.

Lee, J. (2008). Is Test-driven External Accountability Effective? Synthesizing the Evidence from Cross-State Causal-Comparative and Correlational Studies.Review of Educational Research, 78(3), 608-644.

Lee, J. (2007). Do National and State Assessments Converge for Educational Accountability? A Meta-Analytic Synthesis of Multiple Measures in Maine and Kentucky.Applied Measurement in Education, 20(2), 171-203.

Lee, J. (2007). Two Worlds of Private Tutoring: After-School Mathematics Tutoring as Individual and Collective Choices in Korea and the U.S. Teachers College Record, 109(5)1207-1234.

Lee, J. (2006). Input-guarantee vs. Performance-guarantee Approaches to School Accountability: Cross-State Comparisons of Policies, Resources, and Outcomes. Peabody Journal of Education, 81(4), 43-64.

Lee, J., & Wong, K. K. (2004). The Impact of Accountability on Racial and Socioeconomic Equity: Considering both School Resources and Achievement Outcomes. American Educational Research Journal, 41(4), 797-832.

Lee, J. (2004). Multiple Facets of Inequity in Racial and Ethnic Achievement Gaps. Peabody Journal of Education, 79(2), 51-73.

Lee, J. (2004). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Instructional Resource Allocation and Use: IRT and HLM Analysis of NAEP Teacher Survey and Student Assessment Data. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 30, 175-199.

Lee, J. (2002). Racial and Ethnic Achievement Gap Trends: Reversing the Progress toward Equity? Educational Researcher, 31(1), 3-12.

Lee, J. (2001). School Reform Initiatives as Balancing Acts: Policy Variation and Educational Convergence among Japan, Korea, England and the United States. Educational Policy Analysis Archives [Online], 9(13). Available: http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/342

Lee, J. (1998). State Policy Correlates of the Achievement Gap among Racial and Social Groups. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 24, 137-152.

Lee, J. (1997). State Activism in Education Reform: Applying the Rasch Model to Measure Trends and Examine Policy Coherence. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19, 29-43.

Book Chapters

Lee, J. (2015). Educational Testing: Measuring and Remedying Achievement Gaps. In R. Scott & S. Kosslyn (Eds.) Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Liu, X., & Lee, J. (2013). Racial and Socioeconomic Gaps in Social Skills Development: A Longitudinal Study of K-5 Children’s Growth Trajectories and the Effects of Parents and Schools. (pp. 191-218) In G. Sunderman (Ed.) Charting Reform, Achieving Equity in a Diverse Nation. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Lee, J. & Lee, Y.S. (2013). Effects of testing. (pp. 416-418) In Hattie, J. & Anderman, E. (Eds.) International Guide to Student Achievement. New York: Routledge..

Lee, J. (2010). Are Private High Schools Better Academically than Public High Schools? In Welner, K. G., Hinchey, P., Molnar, A., & Weitzman, D. (Eds.) Think Tank Research Quality: Lessons for Policy Makers, the Media, and the Public. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Lee, J. (2008). Asian Americans and the Gender Gap in Science and Technology. (pp. 72-83). In M. Wyer, M. Barbercheck, D. Cookmeyer, H. Ozturk, & M. Wayne (Eds.) Women, Science, and Technology (2nd Edition). New York: Routledge.

Lee, J. (2008). Two Takes on the Impact of NCLB: Tracking Statewide Proficiency Trends through NAEP vs. State Assessment. (pp. 75-89). In G. L. Sunderman (Ed.). The NCLB Challenge: Achieving Accountability, Equity and School Reform. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Lee, J. (2007). Can Reducing School Segregation Close the Achievement Gap? (pp. 74-97). In E. Frankenberg & G. Orfield (Eds.). Lessons in Integration: Realizing the Promise of Racial Diversity in America's Schools. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.

Lee, J. (2007). Revisiting the impact of high stakes testing on student outcomes from an international perspective. In L.Deretchin & C. Craig (Eds.), Teacher education yearbook XV (pp.65-82). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.

Lee, J. (2005). Asian-American Gender Gap in Science and Technology: Tracking Male vs. Female College Students' Paths toward Academic Careers. In G. Li & G. Beckett (Eds.). "Strangers" of the Academy: Asian Female Scholars in Higher Education. (pp. 15-36). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Lee, J. (2003). Comment on David Baker's Paper: Should We Be More Like Them? Reflections on Causes of Cross-national High School Achievement Differences and Implications for American Educational Reform Policy. In D. Ravitch (Ed.). Brookings Papers on Education Policy. (pp. 326-331). Washington DC: Brookings Institution.

Lee, J. (2002). Understanding Differences between Rural and Nonrural Schools Impacting Student Achievement: Implications for Title I Programs and Assessments. In K. K. Wong & M. C. Wang & (Eds.). Accountability and Efficiency in Title I Schoolwide Reform. (pp. 291-310). Greenwitch, CT: Information Age Publishing.


Kim, Y., Lee, J. et al. (2010). A study on the trend in achievement gap and measures against it. Seoul, Korea: Korea Education Development Institute (RR 2010-2). Available: http://www.kedi.re.kr

Lee, J. (2006). Tracking Achievement Gaps and Assessing the Impact of NCLB on the Gaps: An In-depth Look into National and State Reading and Math Outcome Trends. Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University. Available: http://www.civilrightsproject.ucla.edu

Lee, J. (2001). Interstate Variations in Rural Student Achievement and Schooling Conditions. ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. ERIC Digest, December 2001. Available: http://www.eric.ed.gov


Lee, J. (2011). Review of “Confronting the shadow education system: what government policies for what private tutoring?” International Journal of Education Development, 31, 560.

Lee, J. (2010). Review of “Stuck Schools: A framework for identifying schools where students need change—now.” Boulder and Tempe: Education and the Public Interest Center & Education Policy Research Unit. Available: http://epicpolicy.org/thinktank/review-stuck-schools

Lee, J. (2007). Review of "Are Private High Schools Better Academically Than Public High Schools?" and "Monopoly Versus Markets: The Empirical Evidence on Private Schools and School Choice." Tempe, AZ & Boulder, CO: EPRU and EPIC. Available: http://epsl.asu.edu/epru/ttreviews/EPSL-0709-241-EPRU.pdf

Lee, J. (2006). Generational Change: Closing the Achievement Gap. Teachers College Record [Online]. Available: http://www.tcrecord.org

Research Grants

Co-Principal Investigator, Association for Institutional Research. High school pathways to postsecondary education destinations (2011–2012)

Principal Investigator, U.S. Department of Education, Research on Statistical and Research Methodology in Education Grant (2009–2011)

Principal Investigator, U.S. Department of Education, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Secondary Analysis Research Grant (2005–2007)

Co-Principal Investigator, U.S. Department of Education, Interagency Educational Research Initiative (IERI) Grant (2005–2010)

Principal Investigator, Harvard University Civil Rights Project/Southern Poverty Law Center, Racial Achievement Gap Research Grant (2004–2005)

Co-Principal Investigator, U.S. Department of Education, Reading Comprehension Research Grant (2004–2007)

Principal Investigator, National Science Foundation, Statewide Systemic Initiatives Research Grant (1999–2002)

Principal Investigator, U.S. Department of Education, NAEP Secondary Analysis Research Grant (1998–1999)

Principal Investigator, American Educational Research Association, Research Grant (1997–1999)